sabre/katana

sabre/katana's logo
Project’s logo.

What is it?

sabre/katana is a contact, calendar, task list and file server. What does it mean? Assuming nowadays you have multiple devices (PC, phones, tablets, TVs…). If you would like to get your address books, calendars, task lists and files synced between all these devices from everywhere, you need a server. All your devices are then considered as clients.

But there is an issue with the server. Most of the time, you might choose Google or maybe Apple, but one may wonder: Can we trust these servers? Can we give them our private data, like all our contacts, our calendars, all our photos…? What if you are a company or an association and you have sensitive data that are really private or strategic? So, can you still trust them? Where the data are stored? Who can look at these data? More and more, there is a huge need for “personal” server.

Moreover, servers like Google or Apple are often closed: You reach your data with specific clients and they are not available in all platforms. This is for strategic reasons of course. But with sabre/katana, you are not limited. See the above schema: Firefox OS can talk to iOS or Android at the same time.

sabre/katana is this kind of server. You can install it on your machine and manage users in a minute. Each user will have a collection of address books, calendars, task lists and files. This server can talk to a loong list of devices, mainly thanks to a scrupulous respect of industrial standards:

  • Mac OS X:
    • OS X 10.10 (Yosemite),
    • OS X 10.9 (Mavericks),
    • OS X 10.8 (Mountain Lion),
    • OS X 10.7 (Lion),
    • OS X 10.6 (Snow Leopard),
    • OS X 10.5 (Leopard),
    • BusyCal,
    • BusyContacts,
    • Fantastical,
    • Rainlendar,
    • ReminderFox,
    • SoHo Organizer,
    • Spotlife,
    • Thunderbird ,
  • Windows:
    • eM Client,
    • Microsoft Outlook 2013,
    • Microsoft Outlook 2010,
    • Microsoft Outlook 2007,
    • Microsoft Outlook with Bynari WebDAV Collaborator,
    • Microsoft Outlook with iCal4OL,
    • Rainlendar,
    • ReminderFox,
    • Thunderbird,
  • Linux:
    • Evolution,
    • Rainlendar,
    • ReminderFox,
    • Thunderbird,
  • Mobile:
    • Android,
    • BlackBerry 10,
    • BlackBerry PlayBook,
    • Firefox OS,
    • iOS 8,
    • iOS 7,
    • iOS 6,
    • iOS 5,
    • iOS 4,
    • iOS 3,
    • Nokia N9,
    • Sailfish.

Did you find your device in this list? Probably yes 😉.

sabre/katana sits in the middle of all your devices and synced all your data. Of course, it is free and open source. Go check the source!

List of features

Here is a non-exhaustive list of features supported by sabre/katana. Depending whether you are a user or a developer, the features that might interest you are radically not the same. I decided to show you a list from the user point of view. If you would like to get a list from the developer point of view, please see this exhaustive list of supported RFC for more details.

Contacts

All usual fields are supported, like phone numbers, email addresses, URLs, birthday, ringtone, texttone, related names, postal addresses, notes, HD photos etc. Of course, groups of cards are also supported.

My card on Mac OS X
My card inside the native Contact application of Mac OS X.
My card on Firefox OS
My card inside the native Contact application of Firefox OS.

My photo is not in HD, I really have to update it!

Cards can be encoded into several formats. The most usual format is VCF. sabre/katana allows you to download the whole address book of a user as a single VCF file. You can also create, update and delete address books.

Calendars

A calendar is just a set of events. Each event has several properties, such as a title, a location, a date start, a date end, some notes, URLs, alarms etc. sabre/katana also support recurring events (“each last Monday of the month, at 11am…”), in addition to scheduling (see bellow).

My calendars on Mac OS X
My calendars inside the native Calendar application of Mac OS X.
My calendars on Firefox OS
My calendars inside the native Calendar application of Firefox OS.

Few words about calendar scheduling. Let’s say you are organizing an event, like New release (we always enjoy release day!). You would like to invite several people but you don’t know if they could be present or not. In your event, all you have to do is to add attendees. How are they going to be notified about this event? Two situations:

  1. Either attendees are registered on your sabre/katana server and they will receive an invite inside their calendar application (we call this iTIP),
  2. Or they are not registered on your server and they will receive an email with the event as an attached file (we call this iMIP). All they have to do is to open this event in their calendar application.
Typical mail to invite an attendee to an event
Invite an attendee by email because she is not registered on your sabre/katana server.

Notice the gorgeous map embedded inside the email!

Once they received the event, they can accept, decline or “don’t know” (they will try to be present at) the event.

Receive an invite to an event
Receive an invite to an event. Here: Gordon is inviting Hywan. Three choices for Hywan:

, or

.
Status of all attendees
Hywan has accepted the event. Here is what the event looks like. Hywan can see the response of each attendees.
Notification from attendees
Gordon is even notified that Hywan has accepted the event.

Of course, attendees will be notified too if the event has been moved, canceled, refreshed etc.

Calendars can be encoded into several formats. The most usal format is ICS. sabre/katana allows you to download the whole calendar of a user as a single ICS file. You can also create, update and delete calendars.

Task lists

A task list is exactly like a calendar (from a programmatically point of view). Instead of containg event objects, it contains todo objects.

sabre/katana supports group of tasks, reminder, progression etc.

My task lists on Mac OS X
My task lists inside the native Reminder application of Mac OS X.

Just like calendars, task lists can be encoded into several formats, whose ICS. sabre/katana allows you to download the whole task list of a user as a single ICS file. You can also create, update and delete task lists.

Files

Finally, sabre/katana creates a home collection per user: A personal directory that can contain files and directories and… synced between all your devices (as usual 😄).

sabre/katana also creates a special directory called public/ which is a public directory. Every files and directories stored inside this directory are accessible to anyone that has the correct link. No listing is prompted to protect your public data.

Just like contact, calendar and task list applications, you need a client application to connect to your home collection on sabre/katana.

Connect to a server in Mac OS X
Connect to a server with the Finder application of Mac OS X.

Then, your public directory on sabre/katana will be a regular directory as every other.

List of my files
List of my files, right here in the Finder application of Mac OS X.

sabre/katana is able to store any kind of files. Yes, any kinds. It’s just files. However, it white-lists the kind of files that can be showed in the browser. Only images, audios, videos, texts, PDF and some vendor formats (like Microsoft Office) are considered as safe (for the server). This way, associations can share musics, videos or images, companies can share PDF or Microsoft Word documents etc. Maybe in the future sabre/katana might white-list more formats. If a format is not white-listed, the file will be forced to download.

How is sabre/katana built?

sabre/katana is based on two big and solid projects:

  1. sabre/dav,
  2. Hoa.

sabre/dav is one of the most powerful CardDAV, CalDAV and WebDAV framework in the planet. Trusted by the likes of Atmail, Box, fruux and ownCloud, it powers millions of users world-wide! It is written in PHP and is open source.

Hoa is a modular, extensible and structured set of PHP libraries. Fun fact: Also open source, this project is also trusted by ownCloud, in addition to Mozilla, joliCode etc. Recently, this project has recorded more than 600,000 downloads and the community is about to reach 1000 people.

sabre/katana is then a program based on sabre/dav for the DAV part and Hoa for everything else, like the logic code inside the sabre/dav‘s plugins. The result is a ready-to-use server with a nice interface for the administration.

To ensure code quality, we use atoum, a popular and modern test framework for PHP. So far, sabre/dav has more than 1000 assertions.

Conclusion

sabre/katana is a server for contacts, calendars, task lists and files. Everything is synced, everytime and everywhere. It perfectly connects to a lot of devices on the market. Several features we need and use daily have been presented. This is the easiest and a secure way to host your own private data.

Go download it!

RFCs should provide executable test suites

Recently, I implemented xCal and xCard formats inside the sabre/dav libraries. While testing the different RFCs against my implementation, several errata have been found. This article, first, quickly list them and, second, ask questions about how such errors can be present and how they can be easily revealed. If reading my dry humor about RFC errata is boring, the Sections 3, 4 and 5 are more interesting. The whole idea is: Why RFCs do not provide executable test suites?

What is xCal and xCard?

The Web is a read-only media. It is based on the HTTP protocol. However, there is the WebDAV protocol, standing for Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning. This is an extension to HTTP. Et voilà ! The Web is a read and write media. WebDAV is standardized in RFC2518 and RFC4918.

Based on WebDAV, we have CalDAV and CardDAV, respectively for reading and writing calendars and addressbooks. They are standardized in RFC4791, RFC6638 and RFC6352. Good! But these protocols only explain how to read and write, not how to represent a real calendar or an addressbook. So let’s leave protocols for formats.

The iCalendar format represents calendar events, like events (VEVENT), tasks (VTODO), journal entry (VJOURNAL, very rare…), free/busy time (VFREEBUSY) etc. The vCard format represents cards. The formats are very similar and share a common ancestry: This is a horrible line-, colon- and semicolon-, randomly-escaped based format. For instance:

BEGIN:VCALENDAR
VERSION:2.0
CALSCALE:GREGORIAN
PRODID:-//Example Inc.//Example Calendar//EN
BEGIN:VEVENT
DTSTAMP:20080205T191224Z
DTSTART;VALUE=DATE:20081006
SUMMARY:Planning meeting
UID:4088E990AD89CB3DBB484909
END:VEVENT
END:VCALENDAR

Horrible, yes. You were warned. These formats are standardized in several RFCs, to list some of them: RFC5545, RFC2426 and RFC6350.

This format is impossible to read, even for a computer. That’s why we have jCal and jCard, which are respectively another representation of iCalendar and vCard but in JSON. JSON is quite popular in the Web today, especially because it eases the manipulation and exchange of data in Javascript. This is just a very simple, and —from my point of view— human readable, serialization format. jCal and jCard are respectively standardized in RFC7265 and RFC7095. Thus, the equivalent of the previous iCalendar example in jCal is:

[
    "vcalendar",
    [
        ["version", {}, "text", "2.0"],
        ["calscale", {}, "text", "GREGORIAN"],
        ["prodid", {}, "text", "-\/\/Example Inc.\/\/Example Calendar\/\/EN"]
    ],
    [
        [
            "vevent",
            [
                ["dtstamp", {}, "date-time", "2008-02-05T19:12:24Z"],
                ["dtstart", {}, "date", "2008-10-06"],
                ["summary", {}, "text", "Planning meeting"],
                ["uid", {}, "text", "4088E990AD89CB3DBB484909"]
            ]
        ]
    ]
]

Much better. But this is JSON, which is a rather loose format, so we also have xCal and xCard another representation of iCalendar and vCard but in XML. They are standardized in RFC6321 and RFC6351. The same example in xCal looks like this:

<icalendar xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:icalendar-2.0">
 <vcalendar>
  <properties>
   <version>
    <text>2.0text>
   version>
   <calscale>
    <text>GREGORIANtext>
   calscale>
   <prodid>
    <text>-//Example Inc.//Example Calendar//ENtext>
   prodid>
  properties>
  <components>
   <vevent>
    <properties>
     <dtstamp>
      <date-time>2008-02-05T19:12:24Zdate-time>
     dtstamp>
     <dtstart>
      <date>2008-10-06date>
     dtstart>
     <summary>
      <text>Planning meetingtext>
     summary>
     <uid>
      <text>4088E990AD89CB3DBB484909text>
     uid>
    properties>
   vevent>
  components>
 vcalendar>
icalendar>

More semantics, more meaning, easier to read (from my point of view), namespaces… It is very easy to embed xCal and xCard inside other XML formats.

Managing all these formats is an extremely laborious task. I suggest you to take a look at sabre/vobject (see the Github repository of sabre/vobject). This is a PHP library to manage all the weird formats. The following example shows how to read from iCalendar and write to jCal and xCal:

// Read iCalendar.
$document = Sabre\VObject\Reader::read($icalendar);

// Write jCal.
echo Sabre\VObject\Writer::writeJson($document);

// Write xCal.
echo Sabre\VObject\Writer::writeXml($document);

Magic when you know the complexity of these formats (in both term of parsing and validation)!

List of errata

Now, let’s talk about all the errata I submited recently:

The 2 last ones are reported, not yet verified.

4241, 4243 and 4246 are just typos in examples. “just” is a bit of an under-statement when you are reading RFCs for days straight, you have 10 of them opened in your browser and trying to figure out how everything fits together and if you are doing everything correctly. Finding typos at that point in your process can be very confusing…

4247 is more subtle. The RFC about xCard comes with an XML Schema. That’s great! It will help us to test our documents and see if they are valid or not! No? No.

Most of the time, I try to relax and deal with the incoming problems. But the date and time format in iCalendar, vCard, jCal, jCard, xCal and xCard can make my blood boil in a second. In what world, exactly, --10 or ---28 is a conceivable date and time format? How long did I sleep? “Well” — was I saying to myself, “do not make a drama, we have the XML Schema!”. No. Because there is an error in the schema. More precisely, in a regular expression:

value-time = element time {
    xsd:string { pattern = "(\d\d(\d\d(\d\d)?)?|-\d\d(\d\d?)|--\d\d)"
                         ~ "(Z|[+\-]\d\d(\d\d)?)?" }
}

Did you find the error? (\d\d?) is invalid, this is (\d\d)?. Don’t get me wrong: Everyone makes mistakes, but not this kind of error. I will explain why in the next section.

4245 is not an editorial error but a technical one, under review.

4261 is crazy. It deserves a whole sub-section.

Welcome in the crazy world of date and time formats

There are two major popular date and time format: RFC2822 and ISO.8601. Examples:

  • Fri, 27 Feb 2015 16:06:58 +0100 and
  • 2015-02-27T16:07:16+01:00.

The second one is a good candidate for a computer representation: no locale, only digits, all information are present…

Maybe you noticed there is no link on ISO.8601. Why? Because ISO standards are not free and I don’t want to pay 140€ to buy a standard…

The date and time format adopted by iCalendar and vCard (and the rest of the family) is ISO.8601.2004. I cannot read it. However, since we said in xCard we have an XML Schema; we can read this (after having applied erratum 4247):

# 4.3.1
value-date = element date {
    xsd:string { pattern = "\d{8}|\d{4}-\d\d|--\d\d(\d\d)?|---\d\d" }
  }

# 4.3.2
value-time = element time {
    xsd:string { pattern = "(\d\d(\d\d(\d\d)?)?|-\d\d(\d\d)?|--\d\d)"
                         ~ "(Z|[+\-]\d\d(\d\d)?)?" }
  }

# 4.3.3
value-date-time = element date-time {
    xsd:string { pattern = "(\d{8}|--\d{4}|---\d\d)T\d\d(\d\d(\d\d)?)?"
                         ~ "(Z|[+\-]\d\d(\d\d)?)?" }
  }

# 4.3.4
value-date-and-or-time = value-date | value-date-time | value-time

Question: --10 is October or 10 seconds?

--10 can fit into value-date and value-time:

  • From value-date, the 3rd element in the disjunction is --\d\d(\d\d)?, so it matches --10,
  • From value-time, the last element in the first disjunction is --\d\d, so it matches --10.

If we have a date-and-or-time value, value-date comes first, so --10 is always October. Nevertheless, if we have a time value, --10 is 10 seconds. Crazy now?

Oh, and XML has its own date and time format, which is well-defined and standardized. Why should we drag this crazy format along?

Oh, and I assume every format depending on ISO.8601.2004 has this bug. But I am not sure because ISO standards are not free.

How can RFCs have such errors?

So far, RFCs are textual standards. Great. But they are just text. Written by humans, and thus they are subject to errors or failures. It is even error-prone. I do not understand: Why an RFC does not come with an executable test suite? I am pretty sure every reader of an RFC will try to create a test suite on its own.

I assume xCal and xCard formats are not yet very popular. Consequently, few people read the RFC and tried to write an implementation. This is my guess. However, it does not avoid the fact an executable test suite should (must?) be provided.

How did I find them?

This is how I found these errors. I wrote a test suite for xCal and xCard in sabre/vobject. I would love to write a test suite agnostic of the implementation, but I ran out of time. This is basically format transformation: R:xy where R can be a reflexive operator or not (depending of the versions of iCalendar and vCard we consider).

For “simple“ errata, I found the errors by testing it manually. For errata 4247 and 4261 (with the regular expressions), I found the error by applying the algorithms presented in Generate strings based on regular expressions.

Conclusion

sabre/vobject supports xCal and xCard.