From Rust to beyond: The C galaxy

This blog post is part of a series explaining how to send Rust beyond earth, into many different galaxies. Rust has visited:

The galaxy we will explore today is the C galaxy. This post will explain what C is (shortly), how to compile any Rust program in C in theory, and how to do that practically with our Rust parser from the Rust side and the C side. We will also see how to test such a binding.

What is C, and why?

C is probably the most used and known programming language in the world. Quoting Wikipedia:

C […] is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations. By design, C provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions, and therefore it has found lasting use in applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language, including operating systems, as well as various application software for computers ranging from supercomputers to embedded systems.

Dennis Ritchie, the inventor of the C language.

The impact of C is probably without precedent on the progamming language world. Almost everything is written in C, starting with operating systems. Today, it is one of the few common denominator between any programs on any systems on any machines in the world. In other words, being compatible with C opens a large door to everything. Your program will be able to talk directly to any program easily.

Because languages like PHP or Python are written in C, in our particular Gutenberg parser usecase, it means that the parser can be embedded and used by PHP or Python directly, with almost no overhead. Neat!

Rust 🚀 C

Rust to C

In order to use Rust from C, one may need 2 elements:

  1. A static library (.a file),
  2. A header file (.h file).

The theory

To compile a Rust project into a static library, the crate-type property must contain the staticlib value. Let’s edit the Cargo.toml file such as:

name = "gutenberg_post_parser"
crate-type = ["staticlib"]

Once cargo build --release is run, a libgutenberg_post_parser.a file is created in target/release/. Done. cargo and rustc make this step really a doddle.

Now the header file. It can be written manually, but it’s tedious and it gets easily outdated. The goal is to automatically generate it. Enter cbindgen:

cbindgen can be used to generate C bindings for Rust code. It is currently being developed to support creating bindings for WebRender, but has been designed to support any project.

To install cbindgen, edit your Cargo.toml file, such as:

build = ""

cbindgen = "^0.6.0"

Actually, cbindgen comes in 2 flavors: CLI executable, or a library. I prefer to use the library approach, which makes installation easier.

Note that Cargo has been instructed to use the file to build the project. This file is an appropriate place to generate the C headers file with cbindgen. Let’s write it!

extern crate cbindgen;

fn main() {
    let crate_dir = std::env::var("CARGO_MANIFEST_DIR").unwrap();

        .expect("Unable to generate C bindings.")

With those information, cbindgen will scan the source code of the project and will generate C headers automatically in the dist/gutenberg_post_parser.h header file. Scanning will be detailed in a moment, but before that, let’s quickly see how to control the content of the header file. With the code snippet above, cbindgen will look for a cbindgen.toml configuration file in the CARGO_MANIFEST_DIR directory, i.e. the root of your crate. Mine looks like this:

header = """

Gutengerg Post Parser, the C bindings.

Warning, this file is autogenerated by `cbindgen`.
Do not modify this manually.

tab_width = 4
language = "C"

It describes itself quite easily. The documentation details the configuration very well.

cbindgen will scan the code and will stop on structs or enums that have the decorator #[repr(C)], #[repr(size)] or #[repr(transparent)], or functions that are marked as extern "C" and are public. So when one writes:

pub struct Slice {
    pointer: *const c_char,
    length: usize

pub enum Option {

pub extern "C" parse(pointer: *const c_char) -> c_void { … }

Then cbindgen will generate this:

… header comment …

typedef struct {
    const char *pointer;
    uintptr_t length;
} Slice;

typedef enum {
} Option_Tag;

typedef struct {
    Slice _0;
} Some_Body;

typedef struct {
    Option_Tag tag;
    union {
        Some_Body some;
} Option;

void parse(const char *pointer);

It works; Great!

Note the #[no_mangle] that decorates the Rust parse function. It instructs the compiler to not rename the function, so that the function has the same name from the perspective of C.

OK, that’s all for the theory. Let’s practise now, we have a parser to bind to C!


We want to bind a function named parse. The function outputs an AST representing the language being analysed. For the recall, the original AST looks like this:

pub enum Node<'a> {
    Block {
        name: (Input<'a>, Input<'a>),
        attributes: Option<Input<'a>>,
        children: Vec<Node<'a>>

This AST is defined in the Rust parser. The Rust binding to C will transform this AST into another set of structs and enums for C. It is mandatory only for types that are directly exposed to C, not internal types that Rust uses. Let’s start by defining Node:

pub enum Node {
    Block {
        namespace: Slice_c_char,
        name: Slice_c_char,
        attributes: Option_c_char,
        children: *const c_void

Some immediate thoughts:

  • The structure Slice_c_char emulates Rust slices (see below),
  • The enum Option_c_char emulates Option (see below),
  • The field children has type *const c_void. It should be *const Vector_Node (our definition of Vector), but the definition of Node is based on Vector_Node and vice versa. This cyclical definition case is unsupported by cbindgen so far. So… yes, it is defined as a void pointer, and will be casted later in C,
  • The fields namespace and name are originally a tuple in Rust. Tuples have no equivalent in C with cbindgen, so two fields are used instead.

Let’s define Slice_c_char:

pub struct Slice_c_char {
    pointer: *const c_char,
    length: usize

This definition borrows the semantics of Rust’ slices. The major benefit is that there is no copy when binding a Rust slice to this structure.

Let’s define Option_c_char:

pub enum Option_c_char {

Finally, we need to define Vector_Node and our own Result for C. They mimic the Rust semantics closely:

pub struct Vector_Node {
    buffer: *const Node,
    length: usize

pub enum Result {

Alright, all types are declared! It’s time to write the parse function:

pub extern "C" fn parse(pointer: *const c_char) -> Result {

The function takes a pointer from C. It means that the data to analyse (i.e. the Gutenberg blog post) is allocated and owned by C: The memory is allocated on the C side, and Rust is only responsible of the parsing. This is where Rust shines: No copy, no clone, no memory mess, only pointers to this data will be returned to C as slices and vectors.

The workflow will be the following:

  • First thing to do when we deal with C: Check that the pointer is not null,
  • Reconstitute an input from the pointer with CStr. This standard API is useful to abstract C strings from the Rust point of view. The difference is that a C string terminates by a NULL byte and has no length, while in Rust a string has a length and does not terminate with a NULL byte,
  • Run the parser, then transform the AST into the “C AST”.

Let’s do that!

pub extern "C" fn parse(pointer: *const c_char) -> Result {
    if pointer.is_null() {
        return Result::Err;

    let input = unsafe { CStr::from_ptr(pointer).to_bytes() };

    if let Ok((_remaining, nodes)) = gutenberg_post_parser::root(input) {
        let output: Vec =
                .map(|node| into_c(&node))

        let vector_node = Vector_Node {
            buffer: output.as_slice().as_ptr(),
            length: output.len()


    } else {

Only pointers are used in Vector_Node: Pointer to the output, and the length of the output. The conversion is light.

Now let’s see the into_c function. Some parts will not be detailed; Not because they are difficult but because they are repetitive. The entire code lands here.

fn into_c<'a>(node: &ast::Node<'a>) -> Node {
    match *node {
        ast::Node::Block { name, attributes, ref children } => {
            Node::Block {
                namespace: …,
                name: …,
                attributes: …,
                children: …

        ast::Node::Phrase(input) => {

I want to show namespace for the warm-up (name, attributes and Phrase are very similar), and children because it deals with void.

Let’s convert into Node::Block.namespace:

ast::Node::Block { name, …, … } => {
    Node::Block {
        namespace: Slice_c_char {
            pointer: name.0.as_ptr() as *const c_char,
            length: name.0.len()


Pretty straightforward so far. namespace is a Slice_c_char. The pointer is the pointer of the name.0 slice, and the length is the length of the same name.0. This is the same process for other Rust slices.

children is different though. It works in three steps:

  1. Collect all children as C AST nodes in a Rust vector,
  2. Transform the Rust vector into a valid Vector_Node,
  3. Transform the Vector_Node into a *const c_void pointer.
ast::Node::Block { …, …, ref children } => {
    Node::Block {

        children: {
            // 1. Collect all children as C AST nodes.
            let output: Vec =
                    .map(|node| into_c(&node))

            // 2. Transform the vector into a Vector_Node.
            let vector_node = if output.is_empty() {
                    Vector_Node {
                        buffer: ptr::null(),
                        length: 0
            } else {
                    Vector_Node {
                        buffer: output.as_slice().as_ptr(),
                        length: output.len()

            // 3. Transform Vector_Node into a *const c_void pointer.
            let vector_node_pointer = Box::into_raw(vector_node) as *const c_void;



Step 1 is straightforward.

Step 2 defines what is the behavior when there is no node. In other words, it defines what an empty Vector_Node is. The buffer must contain a NULL raw pointer, and the length is obviously 0. Without this behavior I got various segmentation fault in my code, even if I checked the length before the buffer. Note that Vector_Node is allocated on the heap with Box::new so that the pointer can be easily shared with C.

Step 3 uses the  Box::into_raw function to consume the box and to return the wrapped raw pointer of the data it owns. Rust will not free anything here, it’s our responsability (or the responsability of C to be pedantic). Then the *mut Vector_Node returned by Box::into_raw can be freely casted into *const c_void.

Finally, we instruct the compiler to not drop output when it goes out of scope with mem::forget (at this step of the series, you are very likely to know what it does).

Personally, I spent few hours to understand why my pointers got random addresses, or were pointing to a NULL data. The resulting code is simple and kind of clear to read, but it wasn’t obvious for me what to do beforehand.

And that’s all for the Rust part! The next section will present the C code that calls Rust, and how to compile everything all together.

C 🚀 executable

C to executable
“Artist View of a ray of light”… Don’t judge me!

Now the Rust part is ready, the C part must be written to call it.

Minimal Working Example

Let’s do something very quick to see if it links and compiles:

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include "gutenberg_post_parser.h"

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
    FILE* file = fopen(argv[1], "rb");
    fseek(file, 0, SEEK_END);
    long file_size = ftell(file);

    char* file_content = (char*) malloc(file_size * sizeof(char));
    fread(file_content, 1, file_size, file);

    // Let's call Rust!
    Result output = parse(file_content);

    if (output.tag == Err) {
        printf("Error while parsing.\n");

        return 1;

    const Vector_Node nodes = output.ok._0;
    // Do something with nodes.


    return 0;

To keep the code concise, I left all the error handlers out of the example. The entire code lands here if you’re curious.

What happens in this code? The first thing to notice is #include "gutenberg_post_parser.h" which is the header file that is automatically generated by cbindgen.

Then a filename from argv[1] is used to read a blog post to parse. The parse function is from Rust, just like the Result and Vector_Node types.

The Rust enum Result { Ok(Vector_Node), Err } is compiled to C as:

typedef enum {
} Result_Tag;

typedef struct {
    Vector_Node _0;
} Ok_Body;

typedef struct {
    Result_Tag tag;
    union {
        Ok_Body ok;
} Result;

No need to say that the Rust version is easier and more compact to read, but this isn’t the point. To check if Result contains an Ok value or an Error, one has to check the tag field, like we did with output.tag == Err. To get the content of the Ok, we did output.ok._0 (_0 is a field from Ok_Body).

Let’s compile this with clang! We assume that this code above is located in the same directory than the gutenberg_post_parser.h file, i.e. in a dist/ directory. Thus:

$ cd dist
$ clang \
      # Enable all warnings. \
      -Wall \

      # Output executable name. \
      -o gutenberg-post-parser \

      # Input source file. \
      gutenberg_post_parser.c \

      # Directory where to find the static library (*.a). \
      -L ../target/release/ \

      # Link with the gutenberg_post_parser.h file. \
      -l gutenberg_post_parser \

      # Other libraries to link with.
      -l System \
      -l pthread \
      -l c \
      -l m

And that’s all! We end up with a gutenberg-post-parser executable that runs C and Rust.

More details

In the original source code, a recursive function that prints the entire AST on stdout can be found, namely print (original, isn’t it?). Here is some side-by-side comparisons between Rust syntax and C syntax.

The Vector_Node struct in Rust:

pub struct Vector_Node {
    buffer: *const Node,
    length: usize

The Vector_Node struct in C:

typedef struct {
    const Node *buffer;
    uintptr_t length;
} Vector_Node;

So to respectivelly read the number of nodes (length of the vector) and the nodes in C, one has to write:

const uintptr_t number_of_nodes = nodes->length;

for (uintptr_t nth = 0; nth < number_of_nodes; ++nth) {
    const Node node = nodes->buffer[nth];

This is almost idiomatic C code!

A Node is defined in C as:

typedef enum {
} Node_Tag;

typedef struct {
    Slice_c_char namespace;
    Slice_c_char name;
    Option_c_char attributes;
    const void* children;
} Block_Body;

typedef struct {
    Slice_c_char _0;
} Phrase_Body;

typedef struct {
    Node_Tag tag;
    union {
        Block_Body block;
        Phrase_Body phrase;
} Node;

So once a node is fetched, one can write the following code to detect its kind:

if (node.tag == Block) {
    // …
} else if (node.tag == Phrase) {
    // …

Let’s focus on Block for a second, and let’s print the namespace and the name of the block separated by a slash (/):

const Block_Body block = node.block;

const Slice_c_char namespace = block.namespace;
const Slice_c_char name =;

    (int) namespace.length, namespace.pointer,
    (int) name.length, name.pointer

The special %.*s form in printf allows to print a string based on its length and its pointer.

I think it is interesting to see the cast from void to Vector_Node for children. It’s a single line:

const Vector_Node* children = (const Vector_Node*) (block.children);

I think that’s all for the details!


I reckon it is also interesting to see how to unit test C bindings directly with Rust. To emulate a C binding, first, the inputs must be in “C form”, so strings must be C strings. I prefer to write a macro for that:

macro_rules! str_to_c_char {
    ($input:expr) => (

And second, the opposite: The parse function returns data for C, so they need to be “converted back” to Rust. Again, I prefer to write a macro for that:

macro_rules! slice_c_char_to_str {
    ($input:ident) => (
        unsafe {
                    $input.pointer as *const u8,
                    $input.length + 1

All right! The final step is to write a unit test. As an example, a Phrase will be tested; The idea remains the same for Block but the code is more concise for the former.

fn test_root_with_a_phrase() {
    let input = str_to_c_char!("foo");
    let output = parse(input.as_ptr());

    match output {
        Result::Ok(result) => match result {
            Vector_Node { buffer, length } if length == 1 =>
                match unsafe { &*buffer } {
                    Node::Phrase(phrase) => {
                        assert_eq!(slice_c_char_to_str!(phrase), "foo");

                    _ => assert!(false)

            _ => assert!(false)

        _ => assert!(false)

What happens here? The input and output have been prepared. The former is the C string "foo". The latter is the result of parse. Then there is a match to validate the form of the AST. Rust is very expressive, and this test is a good illustration. The Vector_Node branch is activated if and only if the length of the vector is 1, which is expressed with the guard if length == 1. Then the content of the phrase is transformed into a Rust string and compared with a regular assert_eq! macro.

Note that —in this case— buffer is of type *const Node, so it represents the first element of the vector. If we want to access the next elements, we would need to use the Vec::from_raw_parts function to get a proper Rust API to manipulate this vector.


We have seen that Rust can be embedded in C very easily. In this example, Rust has been compiled to a static library, and a header file; the former is native with Rust tooling, the latter is automatically generated with cbindgen.

The parser written in Rust manipulates a string allocated and owned by C. Rust only returns pointers (as slices) to this string back to C. Then C has no difficulties to read those pointers. The only tricky part is that Rust allocates some data (like vectors of nodes) on the heap that C must free. The “free” part has been omitted from the article though: It does not represent a big challenge, and a C developer is likely to be used to this kind of situation.

The fact that Rust does not use a garbage collector makes it a perfect candidate for these usecases. The story behind these bindings is actually all about memory: Who allocates what, and What is the form of the data in memory. Rust has a #[repr(C)] decorator to instruct the compiler to use a C memory layout, which makes C bindings extremely simple for the developer.

We have also seen that the C bindings can be unit tested within Rust itself, and run with cargo test.

cbindgen is a precious companion in this adventure, by automating the header file generation, it reduces the update and the maintenance of the code to a script.

In terms of performance, C should have similar results than Rust, i.e. extremely fast. I didn’t run a benchmark to verify this statement, it’s purely theoretical. It can be a subject for a next post!

Now that we have successfully embedded Rust in C, a whole new world opens up to us! The next episode will push Rust in the PHP world as a native extension (written in C). Let’s go!