Tagua VM is an experimental PHP virtual machine written in Rust and LLVM. It is composed as a set of libraries. One of them that keeps me busy these days is
tagua-parser. It contains the lexical and syntactic analysers for the PHP language, in addition to the AST (Abstract Syntax Tree). If you would like to know more about this project, you can see this conference I gave at the PHPTour last week: Tagua VM, a safe PHP virtual machine.
tagua-parser is built with parser combinators. Instead of having a classical grammar, compiled to a parser, we write pure functions acting as small parsers. We then combine them together. This post does not explain why this is a sane approach in our context, but keep in mind this is much easier to test, to maintain, and to optimise.
Because this project is complex enought, we are delegating the parser combinator implementation to nom.
nom is a parser combinators library written in Rust. Its goal is to provide tools to build safe parsers without compromising the speed or memory consumption. To that end, it uses extensively Rust’s strong typing, zero copy parsing, push streaming, pull streaming, and provides macros and traits to abstract most of the error prone plumbing.
Recently, I have been working on optimisations in the
FindSubstring traits from nom itself. These traits provide methods to find a token (i.e. a lexeme), and to find a substring, crazy naming. However, this is not totally valid:
FindToken expects to find a single item (if implemented for
u8, it will look for a
u8 in a
FindSubstring really is about finding a substring, so a token of any length.
It appeared that these methods can be optimised in some cases. Both default implementations are using Rust iterators: Regular iterator for
FindToken, and window iterator for
FindSubstring, i.e. an iterator over overlapping subslices of a given length. We have benchmarked big PHP comments, which are analysed by parsers actively using these two trait implementations.
Here are the result, before and after our optimisations:
test …::bench_span ... bench: 73,433 ns/iter (+/- 3,869) test …::bench_span ... bench: 15,986 ns/iter (+/- 3,068)
A boost of 78%! Nice!
The pull request has been merged today, thank you Geoffroy Couprie! The new algorithms heavily rely on the
memchr crate. So all the credits should really go to Andrew Gallant! This crate provides a safe interface
memrchr. It also provides fallback implementations when either function is unavailable.
The new algorithms are only implemented for
&[u8] though. Fortunately, the implementation for
&str fallbacks to the former.
This is small contribution, but it brings a very nice boost. Hope it will benefit to other projects!
I am also blowing the dust off of Algorithms on Strings, by M. Crochemore, C. Hancart, and T. Lecroq. I am pretty sure it should be useful for nom and
tagua-parser. If you haven’t read this book yet, I can only encourage you to do so!